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Project description

The project

In the MORE4 project, PPMI together with IDEA Consult and their partners have supported the European Commission (DG Research and Innovation) in the evidence-based policy development on the research profession in Europe. We have provided up-to-date and internationally comparable data, indicators and analysis focused on the mobility, career paths, working conditions and remuneration of researchers in Europe.

We have taken the opportunity to consolidate the results of MORE1, MORE2 and MORE3 and further identify new indicators that meet emerging policy needs and priorities. As in MORE3, not only patterns, motives and barriers of mobility, but also the effects of mobility for individual researchers were analysed. Dual positions, virtual mobility, short-term mobility and collaboration in relation to international mobility were mapped and the motivating factors and barriers for intersectoral mobility disclosed. As in MORE3, the current study also paid attention to policies for young researchers and for open science, open innovation and openness to the world. These developments are reflected in the analysis and indicators.

The study consists of two large-scale surveys and an international indicator report based on a combination of existing data in secondary sources and new indicators from the surveys:

  • The EU HE survey (April-May 2019):
    A survey of more than 10,000 individual researchers working in the EU (28 Member States + 3 Associated Countries) in higher education institutions (HEI) at the moment of the survey. The survey addressed researchers with both EU and non-EU citizenship. It also included researchers who have been mobile outside the EU but have returned to work in the EU. It did not include EU and non-EU researchers who were working outside the EU when the survey was carried out. The sampling and survey strategy guaranteed representative data at country level. This survey was based on online and telephone interviews (CAWI and CATI).


  • The global survey (March-June 2020):
    A survey of more than 4,000 individual researchers working outside the EU at the moment of the survey. The majority (but not all) of the researchers in the sample worked in higher education institutes. The survey included i) EU researchers working outside the EU, ii) non-EU researchers who have worked in the EU in the past, iii) non-EU researchers who have not worked in the EU but who have been internationally mobile elsewhere and iv) non-EU researchers who have not been mobile at all.


  • The set of internationally comparable indicators:
    A selection of around 30 key indicators on researchers, their careers and mobility was developed and presented in colour-coded scorecards for quick reference to the main indicators on the topic.


A comprehensive report on each of the surveys and the international indicators is made available under “Deliverables”. The MORE1, MORE2, and MORE3 reports are currently still accessible on the website of the European Commission: Euraxess Policy Library.

Another deliverable of MORE4 project is an indicator tool where the main indicators from the EU HEI surveys carried out in MORE2, MORE3 and MORE4 can be downloaded per country, gender, field of science, career stage and year (2012, 2016, 2019).