More4 Logo More3 European Commission Logo

Researchers    Career stages R1 to R4    Fields of science    Reference countries

Reference countries

In the MORE EU HE surveys, different countries of reference are collected:

  • Panel country: the country identified as country of current employment during the collection of researcher contact details (before the survey)
  • Country of current employment (as identified in the survey)
  • Country of PhD: country where the researcher is currently enrolled in a PhD programme or has previously obtained his or her PhD.
  • Country of citizenship
  • Country of residence


The panel country is one of the dimensions of the stratified sampling strategy and is therefore collected in preparation of the survey. Therefore, unless otherwise indicated in the description of the indicators, panel country is applied as reference and the indicators referring to panel country are accurate at country level.

Other references are sometimes applied, depending on the specific indicator. It is worth mentioning that the panel country and country of current employment are 94% of the cases the same.


How to get started?     Start online indicator tool