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Researchers    Career stages R1 to R4    Fields of science    Reference countries


The main definitions on researchers in use derive from the Canberra Manual, covering HRST and from the Frascati Manual, covering Research and experimental development and R&D personnel. These definitions are generally accepted and widely applied, e.g. also in the previous MORE studies by the European Commission.


Definitions from the Frascati Manual:

Research and experimental development (R&D):

"Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge – including knowledge of humankind, culture and society – and to devise new applications of available knowledge."



  • “Professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge. They conduct research and improve or develop concepts, theories, models, techniques instrumentation, software or operational methods.”
  • “For practical reasons, doctoral students engaged in R&D should be counted as researchers.”


To define a researcher, the surveys contain the following self-selection paragraph in the introduction:

We specifically target “researchers” within this survey, including people:

  • carrying out research OR
  • supervising research OR
  • improving or developing new products/processes/services OR
  • supervising the improvement or development of new products/processes/services.

If you consider yourself to fall into one or more of the above categories, we kindly ask you to complete the questionnaire.


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